The Schell-Plan






Due to the generally economic growth after the end of the world depression, a busy demand for motor vehicles of all kinds arose in the 1930s. Active competition between different manufacturers led to extensive offerings of vehicle types and to frequent changing vehicle models. At an early stage, the government of the German Reich realised that this large variety of types would negatively influence the overall productivity during a future war. Therefore Colonel Adolf von Schell as chief representative of the automotive section was ordered to create a plan for the limitation of types in November 1938. This plan was presented in March 1939. The 114 lorry types should be reduced to 19 and the 52 passenger car types to 30. The Schell-Plan became effective on first January 1940. Industry should reorganise their production in 1939 so the cancelled types could be ended in 1940. Four base types of lorries were supposed for production: 1.5 tons, 3 tons, 4.5 tons and 6.5 tons. Per manufacturer maximally two types should be conceded. Following manufacturers were accepted for war production for particular classes:







1.5 ton lorries

3 tons lorries

4.5 tons lorries

6.5 tons lorries























MAN (Standard type)








Saurer (Standard type)








Henschel (Standard type)








Magirus (Standard type)








But the standards of the Schell-Plan became reality only partially. The production of motorbikes and passenger cars was heavily limited to bear up the production of lorries. Some types which were not part of the Schell-Plan were continued, too. In addition, many manufacturers in the occupied territories made large quantities of vehicles of all kind for the Wehrmacht.
Production of 1.5 tons lorries was limited during the war. But the production of their chassis was continued for the production of personnel carriers. Actually, MAN was not designated for the manufacturing of a 3 tons lorry, but the MAN E 3000 was still made for years and some were made by Fross-Büssing under license. MAN (together with ÖAF), Saurer, Henschel and Magirus should develop a standard 4.5 tons lorry. Therefore the consortium for lorries (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Lastkraftwagen) was founded in Frankfurt on the Main. But MAN retired in 1940. So ÖAF made its own 4.5 tons lorry type 4 D 90 until 1941 and later the MAN ML 4500. The standard type was manufactured to limited extent by all involved manufacturers. Outwardly, the standard types were different by their radiator grilles and other details. In total 600 exemplars of the Klöckner-Deutz GS 145 or S 4500 were manufactured from 1941 to 1943. Only prototypes of the all-wheel driven type GA 145 or A 4500 were made and tested. The Henschel standard type was designated as HGS 4500 or Merkur 4500 (4x2) and HGA 4500 or Mars 4500 (4x4). But only a few were made. Until 1942, Saurer made the own 4.5 tons lorry Saurer BT 4500. The standard types SGS 4500 (4x2) and SGA 4500 (4x4) were made in about 240 exemplars from 1942 to 1943. The lorry production of Henschel had to be outsourced in favour of the tank production. The rest of the order was transacted by Saurer. At command, production of the Einheitstyp was stopped in 1943.
At first, Gräf & Stift was allowed to manufacture their company 4.5 tons lorry. Later, Gräf & Stift and Saurer had to manufacture the Mercedes Benz L 4500. Less important were the 6.5 tons lorries. The 6.5 tons lorry developed by the consortium did not enter production. The manufacturing of the commercial 6.5 tons lorries was discontinued at the latest in 1942 because enough supplemental-vehicles were available.






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